|United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)|
Tanzania has been one of the countries
which is most generous in the context of hosting refugees, not only in
East Africa, but also globally. In 2000, the country had the largest
refugee population in Africa, with more than 680,000 refugees living in
camps along the northwest border of the country. Although many Burundian
refugees repatriated back to Burundi in 2006 and 2007, in 2015 there
was an influx of Burundian refugees who settled in Tanzania. These
refugees were settled initially in the Nyarugusu refugee camp, a
Congolese refugee camp established in November 1996.
refugee case load almost tripled the camp’s original planned capacity,
making it one of the world’s largest and most overcrowded camps. To ease
congestion and provide accommodation for new arrivals from Burundi, two
former refugee camps were reopened in Kibondo and Kakonko districts:
Nduta, opened in October 2015, and Mtendeli, opened in January 2016.
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date Tanzania hosts 243,611 refugees in three camps, namely
Nyarugusu, Nduta and Mtendeli in Kigoma region, in north western
Tanzania. Majority of the refugees originated from Burundi, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. Approximately 86% of the
refugee population in Tanzania is accommodated in the three refugee
camps located in Kigoma region, namely: Mtendeli with a population of
31,791; Nduta with 73,181 residents; and Nyarugusu with a population of
131,891. The refugee populations of the camps in Kasulu, Kibondo and
Kakonko districts accounts for about 10% of Kigoma’s total population.
increasing demand for wood resources and pressure on land utilization
are the biggest environmental issues in the Kigoma region. Both refugees
and host communities collect woodfuel as the main source of energy for
cooking. The vast majority (around 95%) of all refugees living in the
refugee camps in Tanzania depend on firewood sourced outside the camp
perimeters for cooking. Competition for the same scarce resource has
caused tensions and conflicts between refugees and host communities. The
Government of Tanzania has already expressed its concern over the
environmental degradation in refugee hosting areas and calls for the
roll-out of sustainable energy solutions.
implementation reports cite a range of negative environmental setbacks
including land degradation, woodland loss, competition for wood
resources, and unsafe access to wood energy for cooking, clear
interventions have been a challenge due to lack of information on the
extent and drivers of the problem. UNHCR, to demonstrate its commitment
to work with Government and partners in addressing deforestation
challenges in refugee and host communities, designed an assessment to
generate information for improved management of natural resources in
refugee impacted areas. Using RS/GIS techniques, the resultant change
detection will give valuable results about land use/ cover changes over
longer periods. The results will further provide soil susceptibility
analysis, deforestation and flood detection, forest biomass estimation
and provide biodiversity conservation recommendation measures. Thus,
there is an urgent need to better understand the dimensions of the
natural resource impacts of the refugees and assist the Government of
Tanzania to develop and finance intervention strategies that can help
alleviate and mitigate pressures on land and other natural resources.
2.0 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE ASSIGNMENT
2.1 PURPOSE OF THE ASSIGNMENT
purpose of this assignment is to conduct a diagnostic assessment of
Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes within the areas impacted by
refugees in North Western Tanzania and contribute to improved management
of natural resources in these areas.
Specifically, the objectives of this consultancy are;
Assess the LULC spatial and temporal changes detection, assess
landscape composition, condition and dynamics within the camps and their
b) Analyze spatial and temporal datasets for LULC
changes detection using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) techniques for Nduta, Mtendeli and Nyarugusu refugee
c) Assess critical (both direct and indirect/underlying) drivers and agents of deforestation and forest degradation;
Identify priority options to mitigate the pressure on the environment,
ensure access to energy for cooking and contribute to building the
resilience of the refugee and host communities;
e) Identify the
socio-economic, environmental and institutional barriers (and agents)
for forest enhancement and sustainable management at the affected areas;
f) Provide recommendations for an environmentally friendly model for UNHCR and government interventions.**
3.0 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
consultant will be required to develop a detailed approach and
methodology to be used in order to address the objectives outlined in
this TOR and produce the required outputs. It is expected that the
methodology designed by the consultant will capture both primary and
secondary data from different sources. The consultant will need to
develop data collection tools and test the tools before administering
them to the respondents. The following activities will be carried out;
i. Develop the Methodology and Tools for Data collection
The consultant will need to develop data collection tools and test the tools before administering them to the respondents. **
ii. Conducting Descriptive Data Collection:
is expected that the consultant will collect a combination of datasets
involving both primary and secondary data. The secondary data will be
collected through desk review from existing relevant documents and the
use of RS/GIS analysis to identify areas of forest/biomass loss and of
land degradation. Structured and semi-structured interviews will be
conducted with the key informants for data triangulation. Consultative
interviews will be conducted with the key informants and through focus
group discussions (FGDs).
iii. Assessing Spatial and Temporal Assessment of LULC changes
is anticipated that the consultant will acquire and analyse very
high-resolution satellite imagery to determine LULC changes over the
areas of interest cropped within the radius of 10 km around each camp.
This step will entail acquisition and analysis of satellite images,
geometric correction, generation of land use and cover classes, perform
change detection and prediction and maps generation. Change detection
will cover 5-year intervals dating back from 2010, 2015 and presently
2020. The change prediction will be forecasted for the coming 10 years.
Image classification will be conducted using very recent analysis
software of raw digital remote sensed data. The output of this
performance will be the generation of preliminary maps to be used during
Ground-truthing exercise for validation of LULC classes.
Performing Data Analysis and Suggesting Intervention Options
from this study will support proposition of interventions options for
addressing key natural resource challenges observed through data
analysis. This analysis will combine also socio-economic data on
population and activities of refugees to establish linkages attributable
to resource use by refugee and host populations. The analysis of
intervention options will consider existing institutional capacities as
well as the broader range of stakeholders (including NGOs and
international organizations) already engaged in support of refugees and
host communities in the broad area of engagement. The analysis should
also focus on the full range of technical options (e.g. forest
rehabilitation, reforestation, woodlots, improved cook stoves, wood fuel
alternatives, soil and water conservation practices, etc.) and
combinations of options that might be appropriate in specific contexts.
The proposed Intervention should consider gender dimensions (e.g.
mitigating possible additional risks of gender-based violence for women
involved in tree-planting and woodland management activities). Reference
should be made to existing good practices, for example, the energy
saving stoves distributed in the camp by UNHCR through its environmental
the final report, the consultant will present the findings to UNHCR and
incorporate the comments from the client before generation of the final
the consultant will present a brief, descriptive plan based on these
ToRs, on how the assignment will be carried out, the methodology to be
used, RS/GIS techniques be adopted, proposal tentative timeframe, and
products that are expected. The plan will also identify any advice,
support or other input that might be required from the UNHCR
Technical Report:** This should provide
a clear finding of the practical assessment of forest resources
degradation issues and analytical information. The report should include
clear maps, GIS images, photographs as appropriate, and should be based
on a combination of desk-based analysis and field assessment. The
technical report should also propose specific intervention strategies
and delivery modalities.
Summary document:** This should
summarize the headline issues of the technical report in a highly
readable and concise manner – suitable for key decision-makers. It
should provide a clear narrative on the need to address natural resource
management sustainability issues in the context of refugee impacted
areas in North West Tanzania, a clear summary of the range of available
intervention options available, and recommendations for delivery
modalities and indicative costings.
consultant will report on a regular basis to the UNHCR Environment
Officer and Environment Associate based at the Kibondo Field Office.
6.0 TIME FRAME AND REPORTING SCHEDULE
The activities under this contract must be completed within a period of 4 weeks from signing the contract which will be from 1st October 2020 to 31st October 2020.
The consultant shall submit narrative and financial reports in line
with the format to be provided by UNHCR. The report submission modality
will be set by UNHCR and shall cover the cost of travel and subsistence
during the presentation of the draft report. After the presentation
meeting, the Consultant will update the report according to the comments
and inputs from reviewers and resubmit to UNHCR as a final report for
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Method of Application
are invited to send a motivation letter and UNHCR Personal History Form
prior to the closing date of this vacancy to the email address below.
Please include the title in the subject line.
Senior Human Resources Officer
UNHCR Representation Office
Dar es Salaam
Email : [email protected]
The deadline for submitting the application is 06 September, 2020.